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Poly(D-lactide) (PDLA), a polymer of a stereospecific cyclic di-ester of lactic acid, is used in biomaterial research for the development of devices such as therapeutic drug delivery vessels. Poly(D-lactide) is used for the preparation of microparticles and resorbable polylactide scaffolds.
GSH-OEt is cellpermeable and has been used to protect cells against radiation damage, oxidants and various toxic compounds including heavy metals. GSH-OEt is a protective agent against cellular damage, such as cataracts and mitochondrial degeneration. It undergoes hydrolysis by intracellular esterases thereby increasing intracellular GSH concentration in many tissues and cell types. Glutathione monoethyl ester may be used to supplement cellular pools of GSH in vitro and in vivo and can prevent ROS formation, neutralize toxic products and block apoptosis pathway. The effect of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt) supplementation on GSH homeostasis and exercise-induced oxidative stress was also examined. Glutathione ethyl ester protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in the rat.
Ca2+-indicator fluo-3 for use with visible-light excitation sources in flow cytometry and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Since about 1996, fluo-3 has also been extensively used in cell-based high-throughput screening assays for drug discovery. Fluo-3 AM is essentially nonfluorescent until it is hydrolyzed intracellularly and/or in the presence of Ca2+. The green-fluorescent emission (~525 nm) of Ca2+-bound fluo-3 is conventionally detected using optical filter sets designed for fluorescein (FITC). As prepared by Minta, Kao and Tsien, fluo-3 was originally reported to undergo an ~40-fold increase in fluorescence upon binding Ca2+.